Online face to face sex
Some 20 years after the introduction of the Internet, we may ask whether these potentials have been, or are in the process of being, realized.
Extrapolating from the properties of a technology to its social effects a paradigm known as technological determinism (Markus, 1994) tends to overlook the fact that the development and uses of any technology are themselves embedded in a social context, and are shaped by that context (Kling et al., 2001).
Moreover, a new generation of young people has been raised using, and feeling comfortable with, the Internet.
Nonetheless, access remained a stumbling block for gender equity throughout much of the 1990s.
Women were initially more reticent about using computers, less willing to invest time and effort in learning to use the Internet, and less likely to be employed in workplaces with Internet access (Balka, 1993).
At the same time, limited trends towards female empowerment are identified, alongside disadvantages of Internet communication that affect both women and men. The immediately following section considers gender in relation to issues of Internet access, both for users and creators of online resources.
Basic access is a prerequisite to online participation, and those who create resources enjoy greater power to promote their agendas.